La experiencia analítica desde el punto de vista del analizando. Profilaxis. Etica y psicoanálisis. Psicología y poder. Terapias adictivas. La sociedad psicologizada. Mala praxis. Una denuncia
anaclisis [anaclisis] f. (Fisiol. hum.) Decúbito, especialmente el supino. (Estar acostado hacia arriba.) aná ἀνά (gr. ‘hacia arriba’, ‘por completo’, ‘de nuevo’, ‘por partes’) + klī‑ κλῑ‑ (gr. ‘inclinarse, tumbarse’; κρεβάτι, κλίνη ‘lecho’) + ‑sis (gr.) [Leng. base: gr. Antiguo.
En gr. anáklisis ἀνάκλισις con el mismo significado desde Hipócrates, s. V a.C., reintroducido] // En psiquiatría, dependencia emocional, inclinación hacia el ser de quien se depende o que domina, en particular la primera relación objetal que establece el niño, caracterizada por la completa dependencia de éste respecto de su madre.
“–Si yo lo inquieto tanto mejor. Desde el punto de vista del público, lo que yo considero como más deseable, es lanzar un grito de alarma y que tenga, en el terreno científico, una significación muy precisa: que sea un llamado, una exigencia primera concerniente a la formación del analista.” J. Lacan

viernes, 2 de noviembre de 2007

Anna Freud, Lost girl by Doug Davis/Sources and notes

Sources
Appignanesi, L., & Forrester, J. (1992). Freud's women. New York: Basic Books. 'St. Anna' The holy spinster who in what she herself named 'altruistic surrender', gives herself up to the care of Freud and his legacy. Anna-Cordelia, youngest of three daughters, who in adolescence feels herself 'dumm' and leaden, yet loves most and remains loyal to her father. 'Anna-Antigone', the indomitable daughter, not eyes and sight but mouth and speech to the increasingly silent inventor of the talking cure. Anna, who is 'stärker wie ich', stronger than me as Freud says, and leads her ailing Oedipus out of Nazi Vienna to the safety of Britain.(Appignanesi & Forrester, 1992, p. 272) Blass, Rachel B. (1993). Insights into the struggle of creativity: A rereading of Anna Freud's "Beating fantasies and daydreams." Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 48, 67-97. The presentation of "Beating Fantasies and Daydreams" as her candidacy paper and Anna Freud's opening a dialogue with her father therein may now also be seen as another step in the girl's development in her struggle with creativity. In the written story Anna Freud accepted the conflict over creativity and no longer needed her masochisitic maneuvers, but she could not yet allow herself to be creative. The acceptance of the libidinal origiin of of the creativity that this requires is begun in Anna Freud's presentation. Through the presentation Anna Freud not only tells her father, but she becomes her father. She goes on to enact her conflictual masturbatory wishes. While writing of autism as something developmentally inferior, something to be overcome in favor of social intercourse, Anna Freud, in effect, transforms her analysis with her father into a self-analysis.(Blass, 1993, pp. 93-94) Davis, D.A. (1990). Freud's unwritten case. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 7, 185-209. Freud, A. (1923). Beating fantasies and daydreams. In The writings of Anna Freud, v 1, pp. 137-157. New York: International Universities Press, 1974. (local) Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. Standard Edition, v. 2. (A.A. Brill translation) Freud, S. (1919) 'A Child is Being Beaten' A Contribution to the Study of the Origin of Sexual Perversions. Standard Edition, v. 17, pp. 175-204. London: Hogarth Press, 1955. (local) There can be no doubt that the original phantasy in the case of the girl, 'I am being beaten (i.e. I am loved) by my father', represents a feminine attitude, and corresponds to her dominant and manifest sex; according to the theory, therefore, it ought to escape repression, and there would be no need for its becoming unconscious. But as a matter of fact it does become unconscious, and is replaced by a conscious phantasy which disavows the girl's manifest sexual character. The theory is therefore useless as an explanation of beating-phantasies, and is contradicted by the facts. It might be objected that it is precisely in unmanly boys and unwomanly girls that these beating-phantasies appeared and went through these vicissitudes; or that it was a trait of femininity in the boy and of masculinity in the girl which must be made responsible for the production of a passive phantasy in the boy, and its repression in the girl. We should be inclined to agree with this view, but it would not be any the less impossible to defend the supposed relation between manifest sexual character and the choice of what is destined for repression. In the last resort we can only see that both in male and female individuals masculine as well as feminine instinctual impulses are found, and that each can equally well undergo repression and so become unconscious. (Freud, 1919, p. 202) Freud, S. (1916). A letter to Anna Freud. American Imago 53.3 (1996) 201-204. (Translated and Annotated by Michael Molnar) Freud Museum, London: Life and work of Anna Freud. Homer. (-800) The Odyssey. Samuel Butler, Trans. (MIT: The Internet Classics Archive) Lean, David. (1942). "In Which We Serve": Mrs. Hardy. (IMDB listing) Mahoney, P. (1992). Freud as family therapist: Reflections. In T. Gelfand & J. Kerr (Eds.) Freud and the history of psychoanalysis.. Hilldale, NJ: The Analytic Press. (streamed audio download) Freud established himself -- or disestablished himself -- as a family therapist in that unique act of wild analysis when he took his own daughter into an impossible and incestuous treatment.…It was in 1919, when Anna's year-old analysis was fully underway, that Freud wrote "A Child is Being Beaten." The grammatically present progressive in the title, I propose, also reflects Freud's concurrent clinical activity with Anna. He was in the process of beating her. In a homegrown version of the return of the repressed, and in a fatherly professional twist of the seduction theory, Freud was carrying out an iatrogenic seduction and abuse of his daughter. Her beating fantasies were doubled.(Mahoney, 1992, pp. 307-308) Newitz, Annalee.(2000) Imagining an orgasm. Salon.com, October 4, 2000. Réage, Pauline. (1965). Story of O. (trans. S. d'Estrée). New York: Grove Press. (Original work published in 1954). {cf. EC 1.7 (7-20-94)} Réage, Pauline. (1971). Return to the château. (trans. S. d'Estrée). New York: Grove Press. (Original work published in 1969). Rostopchine, Sophie, comtesse de Ségur. (1864). Les Malheurs de Sophie. Paris: Hachette. Shakespeare. The tragedy of King Lear. Act 5, Scene 3 CORDELIA We are not the first Who, with best meaning, have incurr'd the worst. For thee, oppressed king, am I cast down; Myself could else out-frown false fortune's frown. Shall we not see these daughters and these sisters? KING LEAR No, no, no, no! Come, let's away to prison: We two alone will sing like birds i' the cage: When thou dost ask me blessing, I'll kneel down,And ask of thee forgiveness: so we'll live, And pray, and sing, and tell old tales, and laugh At gilded butterflies, and hear poor roguesTalk of court news; and we'll talk with them too, Who loses and who wins; who's in, who's out;And take upon's the mystery of things, As if we were God's spies: and we'll wear out, In a wall'd prison, packs and sects of great ones, That ebb and flow by the moon. I was surprised and delighted to learn in November, 1999, that there is an alternate ending to “Lear,” by Nahum Tate, in which Cordelia lives to marry Edgar and care for a rehabilitated Lear. Sophocles. Antigone. LEADER OF THE CHORUS The maid shows herself passionate child of passionate sire, and knows not how to bend before troubles. . . . ANTIGONE See me, citizens of my fatherland, setting forth on my last way, looking my last on the sunlight that is for me no more; no, Hades who gives sleep to all leads me living to Acheron's shore; who have had no portion in the chant that brings the bride, nor hath any song been mine for the crowning of bridals; whom the lord of the Dark Lake shall wed. . . . And yet I honoured thee, as the wise will deem, rightly. Never, had been a mother of children, or if a husband had been mouldering in death, would I have taken this task upon me in the city's despite. What law, ye ask, is my warrant for that word? The husband lost, another might have been found, and child from another, to replace the first-born: but, father and mother hidden with Hades, no brother's life could ever bloom for me again. … [N]o bridal bed, no bridal song hath been mine, no joy of marriage, no portion in the nurture of children; but thus, forlorn of friends, unhappy one, I go living to the vaults of death. Sophocles. Oedipus at Colonus. OEDIPUS Stern-visaged queens, since coming to this land First in your sanctuary I bent the knee, Frown not on me or Phoebus, who, when erst He told me all my miseries to come, Spake of this respite after many years, Some haven in a far-off land, a rest Vouchsafed at last by dread divinities. "There," said he, "shalt thou round thy weary life, A blessing to the land wherein thou dwell'st, But to the land that cast thee forth, a curse." And of my weird he promised signs should come, Earthquake, or thunderclap, or lightning flash. And now I recognize as yours the sign That led my wanderings to this your grove; Else had I never lighted on you first, A wineless man on your seat of native rock. O goddesses, fulfill Apollo's word, Grant me some consummation of my life, If haply I appear not all too vile, A thrall to sorrow worse than any slave. Hear, gentle daughters of primeval Night, Hear, namesake of great Pallas; Athens, first Of cities, pity this dishonored shade, The ghost of him who once was Oedipus. Spregnether, M. (1990). The Spectral Mother: Freud, Feminism, and Psychoanalysis. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Spregnether, M. (1990). Reading Freud's Life. American Imago (Spring 1994), 9-54. Reprinted in Freud 2000. Ed. Anthony Elliott. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998, 139-68. Thomas, D.M. (1994). Eating Pavlova. New York: Carroll & Graf. On hotel notepaper in a smart grey Italian folder bearing the title Strictly Private … I have fallen in love with my wife Anna.The strangest thing about it is that I am sixty, Anna is forty-three; we have been married for twenty-five years and have several children. Also, as a result of various negative factors, we have slept in separate rooms for almost half our married life.vThe night when everything began to change started with a routine meeting at a colleague's house. We had a fairly stimulating discussion. I walked home with a sense of satisfaction but also with undercurrents of sadness. Our house, when I arrived, was silent. I climbed the stairs to bed, removing my collar as I did so. There was a light under my eldest son's bedroom door; in his first year at the University, he would be studying, I hoped. Or would he be exploring forbidden literature? There was a light too under my wife's door; she would be reading some romance or detective story; I did not bother to say goodnight. I undressed and got into bed. I do not have a natural gift for accepting the death of the libido. Anna has never completely lost her attraction in my sight. For a long time I tried to stir a response in her, though by now I had given it up as a useless exercise. Partly I sublimated, partly I clung to memories of our passionate youth. I had a very small artistic talent in my schooldays; in our romantic years she allowed me to resurrect my gift, making some extremely erotic sketches of her. I still cherished them, and used them. I planned to use them that night. I was opening a cabinet when Anna appeared, smiling, clad in a gauzy dressing-robe.(Thomas, 1994, p. 82) Young-Bruehl, E. (1988). Anna Freud: A biography. New York: Summit Books. About Losing and Being LostConcerning last night's dream I dream, as I have often done, that he is here again. All of these recent dreams have the same character: the main role is played not by my longing for him but rather by his longing for me. The main scene in the dreams are always of his tenderness to me, which always takes the form of my own, earlier tenderness. In reality he never showed either [i.e., tenderness in his form or her own] with the exception of one or two times, which always remained in my memory. The reversal can be simply the fulfillment of my wish [for tenderness], but it is probably also something else. In the first dream of this kind he openly said: "I have always longed for you so." The main feeling in yesterday's dream is that he is wandering about (on top of mountains, hills) while I am doing other things. At the same time, I have an inner restlessness, a feeling that I should stop whatever I am doing and go walking with him. Eventually he calls me to him and demands this himself. I am very relieved and lean myself against him, crying in a way that is very familiar to both of us. Tenderness. My thoughts are troubled: he should not have called me, it is as if a renunciation or a form of progress had been undone because he called. I am puzzled. In the dream the feeling is very strong that he is wandering around alone and "lost." Sympathy and bad conscience. (audio) Associations: the poem by Albrech Schaeffer, "You strong and dear wayfarer...": I was with you at each step of the way --there was no victory I did not also win --no sorrow I did not suffer beside you,you strong and you dear wanderer ... Odysseus -- even if he is unfaithful -- homeless -- a servant in the distant lands. Odysseus is truly lost, and cannot find his way to his homeland. [2] Rest of the day: inquiry from Kag [Kagran] whether he [Freud] is returning to Vienna. I answer: never. Wanderer, immigrant, eternal Jew. The reproach is: he is unfaithful to me on his travels, in spite of my faithfulness; like Odysseus toward Penelope. The self-reproach which is projected in this reproach: I am unfaithful to him; which shows in the feeling in the dream. Whether it concerns this house, which I want to leave (?) For one with which he is not familiar. "Mumm's seen it." Thought: "How then shall he find me in my dreams?" -- the woman in "On [sic] Which We Serve" who does not leave the house so that her husband on holiday is able to find her, and who dies. Another layer of meaning: "I am surprised that he calls me to him." He never wished that I would die as a result of his death. (Young-Bruehl, 1988, pp. 286-287) In a letter to Marie Bonaparte (8/6/1946), following another illness, Anna recounts a travel dream: I must tell you a dream which I had in my last night in Walberswick. I was very depressed that night and I only slept a very little. But in that short time I dreamt: I was in Palestine and it was all very interesting. I visited all sorts of places and met many people whom I half seemed to know. A woman invited me to eat goose with them. I cried apparently and she asked me whether I was ill. I said "no, but I have been ill." I saw a modern school and looked at the faces of the pupils, who looked very alert, etc. and there was one very disturbing factor throughout the whole dream. I could not understand a word of anybody's language and they could not understand me.(Young-Bruehl, 1988, pp. 287-288) The "Losing" folder has another dream about her father in 1947: I had a further dream about my father, a curious double (one might say halfhearted) one. It was actually into parts, running alongside. In Part I, I was to marry a man, rather indistinct, youngish, a doctor (I was very unwilling). In Part II, my father and mother had got lost in the dark place (in the city, Paris? Vienna?) And I was looking for them with search parties. My mother was found after a while but not my father and I was quite desperate. I urged the people to search more and more, but it seemed quite hopeless. Half awake, I interpreted to myself "I lost my father through marriage with another man." But that seemed too glib to me to be true. Anyway, I was glad to be awake again. (Young-Bruehl, 1988, pp. 289)

Notes
Anna's 1912 exile to Merano at the age of 16 – Merano, the site of Mathilde's 1905 recuperation from her surgery (and, in 1898, of Mama's vacation-interrupting intestinal troubles, when Anna was two and a half) – put her in an epistolary relationship to Papa that set the stage for years of written conversation, mediated later by Frau Lou Andreas-Salomé and finally by the chastely-loved Dorothy Burlingham. As was his wont, Freud courted his friends and followers through letters, asking that they tune themselves to his shifting interests and acquiesce to his neediness for them as correspondents. Anna stands last in the series Silberstein, Flüss, Fliess, Jung, Anna. Freud’s need here is mortal, and Anna will meet that need in the service of her father’s immortality. In 1942, during the Blitz, Anna Freud started filling a folder titled "About Losing and Being Lost" with [German] text of dreams and associations pertaining to the death of loved ones. In 1948 she drafted an essay on this title – concerned with children’s reactions to the absence of parents – which she delivered in 1953 but did not publish until 1967 (Young-Bruehl, 1988, pp. 284-286; Freud, A., 1967). Young-Bruehl was allowed to read these notes in preparation of her biography of Anna Freud (Young-Bruehl, 1988, p. 483, Note 47). What happened to issues of losing, and of being lost, for Anna Freud during those twenty-five years? How does she represent herself in relationship to her dead father in this period, and how are these representations tied to her dreams and to her (renounced) desires? [1] Alb. The troops by Edmund raised, I have disbanded; Those that remain are under my command. What comfort may be brought to cheer your ageAnd heal your savage wrongs, shall be applied; For to your majesty we do reign Your kingdom, save what partyour self conferred On us in marriage. Kent. Hear you that, my liege? Lear. Why I have news that will recall thy youth; Ha! Didst thou hear’t, or did th’inspiring godsWhisper to me alone? Old Lear shall be A king again. Kent. The prince, that like a god hath power, has said it. Lear: Cordelia then shall be a queen, mark that: Cordelia shall be a queen; Winds catch the sound and bear it on your rosie wings to heaven. [2] If Freud is Odysseus, so long awaited in Ithaca, then Anna is Telemachus, the adolescent son. Related Anna Freud Resources Anna Freud: 1895 - 1938. Sigmund Freud Museum, Vienna. (cf. Anna Freud. Freud Museum Publications. 1993; cf. Life and Work of Anna Freud. Freud Museum, London.) Already in 1910 Anna had begun reading her father's work, but her serious involvement in psychoanalysis began in 1918, when her father started psychoanalyzing her. (It was not anomalous for a father to analyze his own daughter at this time, before any orthodoxy had been established.) In 1935 Anna became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute: the following year she published her influential study of the "ways and means by which the ego wards off unpleasure and anxiety", „The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence". In examining ego functions, the book was a move away from the traditional bases of psychoanalytical thought in the drives: it became a founding work of ego psychology and established her reputation as a pioneering theoretician. As a birthday present she dedicated a copy to her father with the inscription: „Writing books as defence against danger from inside and outside." Anna Freud bibliography. PsycheMatters.com Anna Freud. Personality Theory. George Boeree. Smith, J.C. "Freud's Disastrous Analysis of his Daughter, Anna" From the Hoots of Apes to the Prose of Hamlet: A Psychoanalytic Perspective on the Evolution of Language.

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Marcel Proust

... Entre los intervalos de los instrumentos musicales, cuando la mar estaba muy llena, se oía, continuo y ligado, el resbalar del agua de una ola que envolvía los trazos del violín en sus volutas de cristal y parecía lanzar su espuma por encima de los ecos intermitentes de una música submarina. Yo me impacientaba porque no me habían traído aun las cosas para empezar a vestirme. Daban las doce, y Francisca aparecía. Y durante varios meses seguidos, en ese Balbec que tanto codicié, porque me lo imaginaba batido por las tempestades y perdido entre brumas, hizo un tiempo tan seguro y tan brillante que cuando venía a descorrer las cortinas nunca me vi defraudado en mi esperanza de encontrar ese mismo lienzo de sol pegado al rincón de la pared de afuera y de un inmutable color, que impresionaba, más aun que por ser signo del estío, por su colorido melancólico, cual el de un esmalte inerte y ficticio. Y mientras que Francisca iba quitando los alfileres de las impostas, arrancaba telas y descorría cortinas, el día de verano que descubría ella parecía tan muerto, tan inmemorial como una momia suntuosa y milenaria que nuestra vieja criada despojaba cuidadosamente de toda su lencería antes de mostrarla embalsamada en su túnica de oro. ... Marcel Proust


R.D. Laing

--- Knots (Nudos) R.D. Laing (extracto) People can act very strange. At least ... I think they act very strange. And maybe other people think that I am the one who’s acting very strange. Do you know the feeling? Effective comunication is difficult to construct. There are some many knots in human understanding ... Can you unite these ones? There must be something the matter with him because he would not be acting as he does unless there was therefore he is acting as he is because there is something the matter with him. He does not think there is anything the matter with him because one of the things that is the matter with him is that he does not think that there is anything the matter with him therefore we have to help him to realize that the fact that he does not think that there is anythingthe matter with him is one of the things that is the matter with him. There is something I don’t know that I am suposed to know. I don’t know what it is I don’t know,and yet I am suposed to know,and I feel I look stupidif I seem both not to know it and not to know what it is I don´t know. Therefore I pretend I know it. This is nerve-ranking since I don’t know what I must pretend to know. Therefore I pretend to know everything. I feel you know what I am supposed to know. But you can’t tell me what it is. Because you don’t know that I don’t know what it is. You may know what I don’t know, but not that I don’t know it, and I can’t tell you. So you will have to tell me everything. Absurd, isn’t it? But very real as well. I’m sure you have had similar experiences. What can we do to better our communications? How can we avoid to feel bad? How can we avoid that other persons feel bad? if ( "true" == "false" )... R D Laing

Ronald Laing, the radical psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and psychotherapist who profoundly altered our understanding of mental illness, was the founder of just one organisation - the Philadelphia Association.

Born in Glasgow in 1927 R D Laing studied medicine at the University of Glasgow and went on to become a psychiatrist. His first experiment in changing the way people designated the mentally ill took place at Glasgow’s Gartnavel Hospital where he and colleagues radically altered the treatment regime in a long-term women's ward.

Laing moved to London to work at the Tavistock Clinic and trained as a psychoanalyst at the Institute of Psychoanalysis. Laing had for many years been engaged with continental philosophy and in a series of books published in the course of the 1960s he sought to develop what he called ‘an existential-phenomenological foundation for a science of persons’ and sought to set out a description of the experience of those labelled schizophrenic. Such people, Laing argued, suffered from ontological insecurity, a lack of faith in their own and others' reality which led them to create false self systems to fend off psychological and emotional catastrophe. Laing wanted to make madness and the process of going mad comprehensible, and to a great many people, including many of those afflicted, he did so convincingly. The discourse of the 'mad', he showed, if listened to in the right spirit could make a sense of its own. This was to be the line of thought that Laing would pursue for many years in The Divided Self (1960), Self and Others (1961), Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964) and The Politics of Experience (1967). (After this his writings became more diffuse, sometimes arguably self indulgent, but still capable of great insight). (Leer+)


Explicando a Laing

... Como libro pionero en su consideración de la esquizofrenia, y también por su carácter revolucionario y sus afirmaciones heterodoxas (pese a basarse completamente en análisis clínicos y emplear Esterson y Laing un lenguaje cuidadosamente clínico y objetivo, una tendencia no siempre presente en otros libros de Laing, como The Politics of Experience, de 1967 o Knots, de 1970). Sanity, Madness and the Family fue un libro polémico que recibió numerosas críticas. La primera y más obvia - y algo de lo que Esterson y Laing eran conscientes tras su publicación - es que, como apuntamos previamente, no se publicaron los datos del grupo de control formado por familias no esquizofrenogénicas, donde las interacciones y comunicación no estuvieran basadas enel uso de dobles vínculos y comunicaciones de doble sentido. Pese a que un grupo de control es absolutamente imprescindible para un estudio científico serio, el tiempo ha jugado a favor de las afirmaciones de Laing y Esterson en su obra, puesto que en investigaciones empíricas recientes sobre la influencia del factor familiar en la esquizofrenia, como las de Nevid, Rathus y Greene, se ha demostrado el papel fundamental de la familia en el desarrollo de una personalidad independiente.Objetividad y estilo que se repetirían en el estudio sobre comunicación y patología conjunto con Phillipson y Lee en 1966, Interpersonal Perception, un análisis de los modos de comunicación en parejas.(ontológicamente segura, diría Laing) o el recurso, por presión familiar, a defensas esquizofrenogénicas.La publicación de este libro tuvo, sin embargo, consecuencias más a largo plazo, y no sólo dentro del contexto médico, para la carrera y reputación de Laing. Algunas críticas no bien documentadas llegaron a afirmar que Laing se oponía al concepto mismo de familia, y que lo consideraba una célula de organización social enferma que aliena y destruye al individuo. A esta percepción errónea de las afirmaciones de Laing no ayudó, precisamente, su estrecha relación con David Cooper, pensador radical en lo tocante a la familia (suyos son libros con títulos tan reveladores como The Death of the Family (1971) o The Language of Madness (1978) , en los que la familia se compara a una granja donde los adolescentes son cebados como cochinillos para luego ser“sacrificados” al dios de la cruel y homogeneizadora sociedad). Así, a raíz de la publicación casi simultánea de estas obras de Cooper (que Laing consideraba radicales ya en ese momento), se identificó a Laing con las ideas extremadamente violentas y revolucionarias de su colega. La misión que Cooper se impuso en sus publicaciones eraincitar a la revolución y a la destrucción de la organización social tradicional, cargando las tintas en la familia, como origen de los males sociales, incluso en individuos aparentemente sanos y adaptados. En la obra conjunta de Laing y Cooper, Reason and Violence (1964), las partes escritas por Laing nunca son tan radicales en sus planteamientos como las de su colega, que se aproxima en ocasiones al marxismo puromás que a la práctica psiquiátrica. Así, se ha criticado a Laing por culpar a los padres de los pacientes esquizofrénicos de la aparición de síntomas en sus hijos, sin embargo, su intención en este libro con Esterson, y en otras obras posteriores, no era rechazar y demonizar la familia en sí, sino mostrar cómo la locura no es algo que surjaespontáneamente del paciente mismo, sino, más bien, como el resultado de un mecanismo de presión social. Las familias de este estudio son familias disfuncionales (lo que no significa que todas lo sean), que producen en el individuo que es tratado por locura una serie de condiciones patológicas (llamados síntomas esquizofrénicos), queno son sino una expresión patológica de la disfunción de toda la familia. Tampoco negó Laing que los esquizofrénicos tuvieran problemas para operar en su vida diaria; Laing reconoce la dura y traumática experiencia de la locura, si bien disiente en la interpretación más “clásica” de los orígenes de ésta, y prefiere buscarlos en el ámbito de la interexperiencia, es decir, en el campo de los intercambios sociales. La locura tienesu origen no en trastornos dentro de uno mismo, sino que surge de la relación entre personas (véanse Laing y Esterson 1964; y Laing, H. Phillipson y A.R. Lee 1966). ... Méndez García, Carmen (2004)



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