La experiencia analítica desde el punto de vista del analizando. Profilaxis. Etica y psicoanálisis. Psicología y poder. Terapias adictivas. La sociedad psicologizada. Mala praxis. Una denuncia
anaclisis [anaclisis] f. (Fisiol. hum.) Decúbito, especialmente el supino. (Estar acostado hacia arriba.) aná ἀνά (gr. ‘hacia arriba’, ‘por completo’, ‘de nuevo’, ‘por partes’) + klī‑ κλῑ‑ (gr. ‘inclinarse, tumbarse’; κρεβάτι, κλίνη ‘lecho’) + ‑sis (gr.) [Leng. base: gr. Antiguo.
En gr. anáklisis ἀνάκλισις con el mismo significado desde Hipócrates, s. V a.C., reintroducido] // En psiquiatría, dependencia emocional, inclinación hacia el ser de quien se depende o que domina, en particular la primera relación objetal que establece el niño, caracterizada por la completa dependencia de éste respecto de su madre.
“–Si yo lo inquieto tanto mejor. Desde el punto de vista del público, lo que yo considero como más deseable, es lanzar un grito de alarma y que tenga, en el terreno científico, una significación muy precisa: que sea un llamado, una exigencia primera concerniente a la formación del analista.” J. Lacan

jueves, 1 de noviembre de 2007

Anna Freud, Lost girl by Doug Davis/1

Lost Girl/1 by Doug Davis

There is no Freud scholarship without a transference onto Freud.

When thou dost ask me blessing, I'll kneel down,

And ask of thee forgiveness: so we'll live,
And pray, and sing, and tell old tales, and laugh
At gilded butterflies, and hear poor rogues
Talk of court news; and we'll talk with them too,
Who loses and who wins; who's in, who's out;
And take upon's the mystery of things,As if we were God's spies…
King Lear

Spring, 1999. A decade ago I wrote a paper on Freud's unpublished five year (1895-1900) treatment of a male hysteric, which I constructed as an origin tale of psychoanalysis in transition from positivist-etiological to transferential-narratological discipline. I've been realizing these past months that it's time to attempt a telling of another, more troubling, latent story from Freud's couch: his four year "treatment" of his daughter Anna. I heard one of the (counter)transferentially loaded versions of this therapy -- by analyst/English prof. Patrick Mahoney -- at a conference on Freud in Toronto in 1990 (Mahoney, 1992). I was moved and angered by Mahoney's parable of Anna's transformation on her father's couch from jealous, depressed, masochistic, anorectic, latent-homosexual teenager to the paragon of Freud-guarding 'altruistic surrender' she became in the last years of her father's life. Mahoney points to the richly overdetermined meanings of Anna for Sigmund Freud as Cordelia/Antigone, a hedge against personal mortality and professional defection as Freud’s “metapsychological” papers of the nineteen-teens beget the troubling gender and death theories of the early 20s. In Mahoney’s account Anna is shaped by her father in the image of a goddess, an uncanny virgin who assuages her father’s pain and prepares him for the under-world even as she takes over his legacy in this one -- Antigone to his Oedipus, Cordelia to his Lear. Like Cordelia, she finally has her mad father’s love; and he (as, for 16 years, she ministers to his cancerous mouth), the maternal/pre-oedipal love so long sought. In contrast to the compelling and disturbing story Mahoney told, Elizabeth Young-Bruehl's biography, by far the richest source of information about Anna's life and the basis for Mahoney's treament, seemed to me to pull its punches, to skirt issues of Anna's sexuality as a teen-ager, and her (a)sexuality as an adult. For my purposes here, the key biographical datum is Anna's notes on a dream she had after her father's death, while she was caring for children separated from their parents by the London Blitz. D.M. Thomas's appropriation of the Sigmund-Anna relationship for a chapter of his novel, Eating Pavlova, constructs the erotic fantasies a dying Freud might have had about his daughter's love of him, and his of her. Young-Bruehl, Mahoney, and Thomas spin their three Annas around the same relationship, and somewhere in the middle, I imagine, we might get a glimpse of the lost girl who is all these women, and none.Anna's fate has seemed to me to complement and fulfill her father's, in the double-tragedy that is the origin tale of psychoanalysis. My own complex relationship to this story became apparent as I compared my reactions to the Young-Bruehl, the Mahoney, and the Thomas tellings of the story of Anna.
Anna was the sixth and last of the children born to Martha and Sigmund Freud. She was born late in 1895, the year of Freud and Breuer published Studies on Hysteria, the year Wilhelm Fliess operated on Emma Eckstein. Her conception seems to have resulted from a failure either of her parents’ contraceptive technique or their resolve to employ it; and she took form along with Freud’s hermeneutic in the summer of the “
Irma” dream. Her childish speech is quoted by Freud in The Interpretation of Dreams, where he describes her expressing her longing for strawberries. She admired and envied her two older sisters, Mathilde and Sophie, lacking the former’s feminine home-craft and the latter’s beauty. She seems to have been a serious girl, but she remembered her father's characterization of her as his "Little blackamoor." In early adolescence she developed a severe psychopathology, consisting of sado-masochistic fantasies accompanied by compulsive masturbation, an eating disorder, and depression. Her father treated her with a several points in her adolescence, and initiated regular psychoanalytic sessions in the fall of 918, when she was approaching 23. She and her father reconstructed her fantsies in three phases, from the masturbatory beating fantasies of puberty to the 'nice stories' of her mid-teens and finally the poetry and romantic fiction she composed as a young adult. As both youth and adult, Anna found herself ugly, clumsy, dumm, especially when the adolescent “nice stories,” with their tortured, princely, self-sacrificing youth would intrude on her sublimated analytic work, entice her back to the body’s demands, and she would give in to sado-machochistic fantasy, and to lust. In her own analysis of the beating fantasies, presented as her candidacy paper to the Berlin Psychoanalytic Society in 1922, Anna tells her "nice story" fantasy as follows, referring to herself in the third person as befits a case history:
The material she used in this story was as follows: A medieval knight has been engaged in a long feud with a number of nobles who are in league against him. In the course of a battle a fifteen-year-old noble youth (i.e., the age of the daydreamer) is captured by the knight's henchmen. He is taken to the knight's castle where he is held prisoner for a long time. Finally, he is released.
Instead of spinning out and continuing the tale (as in a novel published in installments), the girl made use of the plot as a sort of outer frame for her daydream. Into this frame she inserted a variety of minor and major episodes, each a completed tale that was entirely independent of the others, and formed exactly like a real novel, containing an introduction, the development of a plot which leads to heightened tension and ultimately to a climax. In this she did not feel bound to workout a logical sequence of events. Depending on her mood she could revert to an earlier or later-occurring phase of the tale, or interpose a new situation between two already completed and contemporaneous scenes-until finally the frame of her stories was in danger of being shattered by the abundance of scenes and situations accommodated within it.
In this daydream, which was the simplest of them all, there were only two figures that were really important; all the others can be disregarded as incidental and subordinate by-players. One of these main figures is the noble youth whom the daydreamer has endowed with all possible good and attractive characteristics; the other one is the knight of the castle who is depicted as sinister and violent. The opposition between the two is further intensified by the addition of several incidents from their past family histories -- so that the whole setting is one of apparently irreconcilable antagonism between one who is strong and mighty and another who is weak and in the power of the former.
A great introductory scene describes their first meeting during which the knight threatens to put the prisoner on the rack to force him to betray his secrets. The youth’s conviction of his helplessness is thereby confirmed and his dread of the knight awakened. These two elements are the basis of all subsequent situations. For example, the knight in fact threatens the youth and makes ready to torture him, but at the last moment the knight desists. He nearly kills the youth through the long imprisonment, but just before it is too late the knight has him nursed back to health. As soon as the prisoner has recovered the knight threatens him again, but faced by the youth's fortitude the knight spares him again. And every time the knight is just about to inflict great harm, he grants the youth one favor after another.(Freud, A.,
She then works out the psychosexual twists of her story in classic Oedipal fashion:
In the first phase the person who beats also was the father; however, the child who was being beaten was not the fantasying child but other children, brothers or sisters, i.e., rivals for the father's love. In this first phase, therefore, the child claimed all the love for himself and left all the punishment and castigation to the others. With the repression of the oedipal strivings and the dawning sense of guilt, the punishment is subsequently turned back on the child himself. At the same time, however, as a consequence of regression from the genital to the pregenital anal-sadistic organization, the beating situation could still be used as an expression of a love situation.
This was the age 14-15 successor to the "nice stories" of childhood (age 7-9), themselves reactive transformations of the original wishes that the father might beat one's siblings. The resolution of these tendecies in the final phase is a nice story, indeed:
The sublimation of sensual love into tender friendship is of course greatly facilitated by the fact that already in the early stages of the beating fantasy the girl abandoned the difference of the sexes and is invariably represented as a boy.
Thus equipped, Anna Freud entered the profession of psychoanalysis she would inherit from her father. From the self-conscious and self-critical teenager sent off to visit the English relatives, she was able to become the dedicated companion of several women and surrogate mother to other women's children. She remained devoted to her father thoughout his lifetime, and to a strict-constructionist expression of his theories throughout hers.

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Marcel Proust

... Entre los intervalos de los instrumentos musicales, cuando la mar estaba muy llena, se oía, continuo y ligado, el resbalar del agua de una ola que envolvía los trazos del violín en sus volutas de cristal y parecía lanzar su espuma por encima de los ecos intermitentes de una música submarina. Yo me impacientaba porque no me habían traído aun las cosas para empezar a vestirme. Daban las doce, y Francisca aparecía. Y durante varios meses seguidos, en ese Balbec que tanto codicié, porque me lo imaginaba batido por las tempestades y perdido entre brumas, hizo un tiempo tan seguro y tan brillante que cuando venía a descorrer las cortinas nunca me vi defraudado en mi esperanza de encontrar ese mismo lienzo de sol pegado al rincón de la pared de afuera y de un inmutable color, que impresionaba, más aun que por ser signo del estío, por su colorido melancólico, cual el de un esmalte inerte y ficticio. Y mientras que Francisca iba quitando los alfileres de las impostas, arrancaba telas y descorría cortinas, el día de verano que descubría ella parecía tan muerto, tan inmemorial como una momia suntuosa y milenaria que nuestra vieja criada despojaba cuidadosamente de toda su lencería antes de mostrarla embalsamada en su túnica de oro. ... Marcel Proust

R.D. Laing

--- Knots (Nudos) R.D. Laing (extracto) People can act very strange. At least ... I think they act very strange. And maybe other people think that I am the one who’s acting very strange. Do you know the feeling? Effective comunication is difficult to construct. There are some many knots in human understanding ... Can you unite these ones? There must be something the matter with him because he would not be acting as he does unless there was therefore he is acting as he is because there is something the matter with him. He does not think there is anything the matter with him because one of the things that is the matter with him is that he does not think that there is anything the matter with him therefore we have to help him to realize that the fact that he does not think that there is anythingthe matter with him is one of the things that is the matter with him. There is something I don’t know that I am suposed to know. I don’t know what it is I don’t know,and yet I am suposed to know,and I feel I look stupidif I seem both not to know it and not to know what it is I don´t know. Therefore I pretend I know it. This is nerve-ranking since I don’t know what I must pretend to know. Therefore I pretend to know everything. I feel you know what I am supposed to know. But you can’t tell me what it is. Because you don’t know that I don’t know what it is. You may know what I don’t know, but not that I don’t know it, and I can’t tell you. So you will have to tell me everything. Absurd, isn’t it? But very real as well. I’m sure you have had similar experiences. What can we do to better our communications? How can we avoid to feel bad? How can we avoid that other persons feel bad? if ( "true" == "false" )... R D Laing

Ronald Laing, the radical psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and psychotherapist who profoundly altered our understanding of mental illness, was the founder of just one organisation - the Philadelphia Association.

Born in Glasgow in 1927 R D Laing studied medicine at the University of Glasgow and went on to become a psychiatrist. His first experiment in changing the way people designated the mentally ill took place at Glasgow’s Gartnavel Hospital where he and colleagues radically altered the treatment regime in a long-term women's ward.

Laing moved to London to work at the Tavistock Clinic and trained as a psychoanalyst at the Institute of Psychoanalysis. Laing had for many years been engaged with continental philosophy and in a series of books published in the course of the 1960s he sought to develop what he called ‘an existential-phenomenological foundation for a science of persons’ and sought to set out a description of the experience of those labelled schizophrenic. Such people, Laing argued, suffered from ontological insecurity, a lack of faith in their own and others' reality which led them to create false self systems to fend off psychological and emotional catastrophe. Laing wanted to make madness and the process of going mad comprehensible, and to a great many people, including many of those afflicted, he did so convincingly. The discourse of the 'mad', he showed, if listened to in the right spirit could make a sense of its own. This was to be the line of thought that Laing would pursue for many years in The Divided Self (1960), Self and Others (1961), Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964) and The Politics of Experience (1967). (After this his writings became more diffuse, sometimes arguably self indulgent, but still capable of great insight). (Leer+)

Explicando a Laing

... Como libro pionero en su consideración de la esquizofrenia, y también por su carácter revolucionario y sus afirmaciones heterodoxas (pese a basarse completamente en análisis clínicos y emplear Esterson y Laing un lenguaje cuidadosamente clínico y objetivo, una tendencia no siempre presente en otros libros de Laing, como The Politics of Experience, de 1967 o Knots, de 1970). Sanity, Madness and the Family fue un libro polémico que recibió numerosas críticas. La primera y más obvia - y algo de lo que Esterson y Laing eran conscientes tras su publicación - es que, como apuntamos previamente, no se publicaron los datos del grupo de control formado por familias no esquizofrenogénicas, donde las interacciones y comunicación no estuvieran basadas enel uso de dobles vínculos y comunicaciones de doble sentido. Pese a que un grupo de control es absolutamente imprescindible para un estudio científico serio, el tiempo ha jugado a favor de las afirmaciones de Laing y Esterson en su obra, puesto que en investigaciones empíricas recientes sobre la influencia del factor familiar en la esquizofrenia, como las de Nevid, Rathus y Greene, se ha demostrado el papel fundamental de la familia en el desarrollo de una personalidad independiente.Objetividad y estilo que se repetirían en el estudio sobre comunicación y patología conjunto con Phillipson y Lee en 1966, Interpersonal Perception, un análisis de los modos de comunicación en parejas.(ontológicamente segura, diría Laing) o el recurso, por presión familiar, a defensas esquizofrenogénicas.La publicación de este libro tuvo, sin embargo, consecuencias más a largo plazo, y no sólo dentro del contexto médico, para la carrera y reputación de Laing. Algunas críticas no bien documentadas llegaron a afirmar que Laing se oponía al concepto mismo de familia, y que lo consideraba una célula de organización social enferma que aliena y destruye al individuo. A esta percepción errónea de las afirmaciones de Laing no ayudó, precisamente, su estrecha relación con David Cooper, pensador radical en lo tocante a la familia (suyos son libros con títulos tan reveladores como The Death of the Family (1971) o The Language of Madness (1978) , en los que la familia se compara a una granja donde los adolescentes son cebados como cochinillos para luego ser“sacrificados” al dios de la cruel y homogeneizadora sociedad). Así, a raíz de la publicación casi simultánea de estas obras de Cooper (que Laing consideraba radicales ya en ese momento), se identificó a Laing con las ideas extremadamente violentas y revolucionarias de su colega. La misión que Cooper se impuso en sus publicaciones eraincitar a la revolución y a la destrucción de la organización social tradicional, cargando las tintas en la familia, como origen de los males sociales, incluso en individuos aparentemente sanos y adaptados. En la obra conjunta de Laing y Cooper, Reason and Violence (1964), las partes escritas por Laing nunca son tan radicales en sus planteamientos como las de su colega, que se aproxima en ocasiones al marxismo puromás que a la práctica psiquiátrica. Así, se ha criticado a Laing por culpar a los padres de los pacientes esquizofrénicos de la aparición de síntomas en sus hijos, sin embargo, su intención en este libro con Esterson, y en otras obras posteriores, no era rechazar y demonizar la familia en sí, sino mostrar cómo la locura no es algo que surjaespontáneamente del paciente mismo, sino, más bien, como el resultado de un mecanismo de presión social. Las familias de este estudio son familias disfuncionales (lo que no significa que todas lo sean), que producen en el individuo que es tratado por locura una serie de condiciones patológicas (llamados síntomas esquizofrénicos), queno son sino una expresión patológica de la disfunción de toda la familia. Tampoco negó Laing que los esquizofrénicos tuvieran problemas para operar en su vida diaria; Laing reconoce la dura y traumática experiencia de la locura, si bien disiente en la interpretación más “clásica” de los orígenes de ésta, y prefiere buscarlos en el ámbito de la interexperiencia, es decir, en el campo de los intercambios sociales. La locura tienesu origen no en trastornos dentro de uno mismo, sino que surge de la relación entre personas (véanse Laing y Esterson 1964; y Laing, H. Phillipson y A.R. Lee 1966). ... Méndez García, Carmen (2004)


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